- ,


Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 ||

2- 27-28 2011 ...

-- [ 11 ] --

Soviet Union and previous generally planned economy has left its mark to Russian economy and its structures. The last twenty years, since the collapse of Soviet Union, has been the time of economic development and learning to meet the demands of market economy.

During this time, the country has faced serious financial crises but also strong economic growth. This positive development has been mainly due to the rising prices of raw materials, which has made it easy to Russia stay in a growth path; however, the strong dependency on the raw materials may provide volatile development for the future. Strong natural resources base has made the nation to rely on them, in some extent, in the expense of developing the economy and the structures for small businesses and innovation. The share of small and medium size enterprises in Russia is still very small. The main goal for the sustainable future should be to increase the competitiveness of small industries to be able to improve the national competitiveness and standard of living in Russia also in the future.

The study concentrates on evaluating the Russias national competitiveness and measuring the development of Russian manufacturing industry. The paper answers to the following research questions.

1. How competitive is Russia in global scale as a nation?

2. How competitive is the manufacturing industry and how has it developed?

The aim of this study is to give a clear picture how Russia is positioned in global scale in competitiveness, especially compared to other developing countries, and how the competitiveness of Russian manufacturing industry has developed based on statistics. Measuring competitiveness is mainly based on the competitiveness approach by Michael Porter. This study uses statistical data regarding Russia from World Economic Forum, World Bank, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, Russian Federal State Statistic Service, and Eurostat.

In national and industrial competitiveness Russia has its strong and weak points. The base for the progress, in both levels, has been build but it still needs to be developed further. Need for the change has been acknowledged especially on a national level, but the change does not happen overnight. The national environment affects a great deal to the industrial performance. When the basic factors for creating and supporting businesses are in order in a national level, it will allow the industries to become more competitive. Russian industrial competitiveness is still in big basic industries based on raw materials.

The smaller and more agile industries clearly have potential, but they are still very small in domestic and international scale. The change will still definitely take a quite long time for Russian industries to become competitive in global scale.

On a national level, strive towards innovation driven stage is strong but the development in the competitiveness rankings in recent years has stayed at the same level. The national comparison indicated that Russia has a good base for the future but the developments in more sophisticated innovative and business sophistication factors have been poor. There are also basic institutional factors that hinder the development of national competitiveness.

In comparison between the BRIC countries, Russias GDP per capita is the highest. GDP has had good growth rate and the standard of living in Russia has increased, if the effect of recent financial crisis is excluded. Also the productivity on a national level is clearly the highest and seems to be on a relatively good level. Russian productivity has had strong development in recent years which is one of the key determinants increasing national prosperity. In foreign direct investments Russia is still the largest investor abroad among BRIC countries, which indicates the internationalization and ability of Russian companies to invest abroad. In inward FDI investments Brazil and China has passed Russia as an attractive target country for investments.

The industrial outputs seem to have problems in Russian case. The share of high technology exports has decreased substantially and the amount of patent applications has stayed at very low level. Industrial and national prosperity is strongly affected by exports. The level of value added in Russian industries is generally low. Value of Russian exports is at extremely low level, if natural resource based basic industries are excluded. High technology exports are even decreased in recent years from Russia. The level of applied patents is also low, which is an indication of poor outcomes of R&D; new innovations, and product development These few indicators show that the Russia has some potential on a national level but the industrial outputs do not meet the expected level.

Russian manufacturing industry has grown approximately 10% yearly in the 21st century. There are notable differences between some of the sectors. Textile industry has, for example, had minor growth compared to electrical and optical equipment sector which has grown more than 200% between the years 20002008. The amount of employees has generally decreased which altogether, with growth in production; this indicates the positive change in labor productivity. The labor productivity in manufacturing has grown strongly, approximately 10% annually and over 100% between the years 2000 to 2008. In manufacturing, wages have grown 150% between the years 20002008. Unit labor costs in Russia are still far from the European standards, but still grown notably, on average 15% annually. Even though the productivity has grown, the wages have grown even more, which has also affected to the cost competitiveness of the industries. The strong rise in wages has lead to the situation where the overall competitiveness has suffered in almost every industry.

Russian manufacturing industry is still heavily relying on basic industries that in large extent rely on raw materials. These industries are low value-adding industries that, however, provide a strong positive cash flow in trade through exports. The manufacturing industry exports to competitive EU markets have increased, but the imports from these markets have increased even more. In general, Russia is importing manufactures almost twice the worth it is exporting from EU- countries. The increase in domestic production has been very moderate compared to the increase in imports. This indicates that the domestic industries are not able to meet the demands of domestic markets. This is probably also the case in Russian manufacturing meeting the demands of international markets in general. Coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel, basic metals and fabricated metal products, and wood and wood products are the only industries that are producing positive trade balance in manufacturing with EU-15 countries.

The smaller industries have shown potential in increasing the productivity which is an indication that they are able to develop and be more competitive. The wages and unit labor costs have, however, increased generally even more than the productivity. Machinery and equipment n.e.c, electrical and optical equipment, and leather and leather product industries have made an exception. These industries have been able to raise the level of productivity more than the ULCs have risen. This indicates the increase in competitiveness in the case of these industries.

Russias aim is to become less resource dependent country. Raising the share of manufactures in trade balance would be key factors to affect competitiveness. The manufacturing of internationally competitive high value-added products is one of the ways to enhance the national prosperity in the long run. The institutional settings and positive business environment for the new innovative companies is the base for the future development. The competitiveness of a nation strongly derives from the companies and industries, but firstly the national business environment has to be able to be competitive itself and support the creation of new enterprises and innovations. The share of SMEs is at the moment quite small in Russia and the large resource base industries are predominant. This makes Russian economy quite volatile and exposed to strong changes in different stages of economic cycle.

The study evaluates Russian competitiveness based on selected indicators in national and industrial levels concentrating on manufacturing industry. It studies the Russian development in the start of 21st century and describes which factors indicate and have affected to Russian competitiveness in global markets.

Russian GDP has grown substantially in recent years. The living standard in Russia is higher than it has ever been before; however, Russian national competitiveness shows few signals of increased competitiveness. The increase in wages and unit labor costs has been generally bigger than the increase in productivity which has affected negatively to the competitiveness. Some industries have, however, been able to increase their productivity and competitiveness.

Few basic industries control the exports and create surplus in trade.

Majority of manufactures are imported from abroad which indicate the inability of the industry to meet the market demands. Anyhow, there are a few industries that have shown good development in trade and other fields. These industries may turn up to be important for Russian competitiveness in the future if they are able to increase their competitiveness on international markets.

Russia clearly has potential of becoming more competitive as a nation, if the nation is able to create an attractive and supporting environment for creating new businesses and innovations. Meeting the demands of global markets is hard, but some Russian industries seem to be ready for the challenge.


1. Porter M.E. & Ketels C. Competitiveness at the Crossroads:

Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy. 2008.

2. Porter M.E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. The Free Press, New York, 1990.

3. Russian Federal State Statistic Service // Statistical Yearbook of Russia. 2009.

4. UNCTAD. UNCTADstat. 2011.

5. WIIW. Industrial Database. 2010.

6. World Bank. 2011. World Development Indicators Databank.

7. World Economic Forum. 2011. The Global Competitiveness Report 20102011. Geneva.



It is no secret that the world becomes more and more open to business. In almost every country regulations and law is changed to make it easier for companies to operate. Between 2006 and 2011 about 85% of economies made doing business easier [15]. It includes countries all around the world (including Poland and Russia).

Simultaneously GWP (Gross World Product) between 1980 and 2010 is rising on average by 3,2% per year. There was only one moment in time when GWP actually decreased (2009 by 1%) [14]. Growing economy and growing number of companies combined with economic freedom results in fierce competition between companies. The completion which is not any more held by the borders of countries.

So what exactly is a Born Global (BG) company? Many researchers agree that a Born Global (also called International New Ventures [9]) can be describe as an entity internationalized soon after their establishment. Other descriptions are start-ups internationalizing at inception or very shortly thereafter [10], young, small sized companies that internationalize their business very early on and are usually originated in small and open economies [6]. There are fewer definitions based on quantitative values. Some of them are: These are companies that within 10 years of their establishment have at least 80 percent of their sales outside the market of their home country and at least 20 percent of their sales outside the market of their home continent [1] or A Born Global is a production firm with an export percentage (compared to the total sale) of 25% or more, which have started exporting within three years after the firms foundation [10]. According to Rennie [11, p. 45-52] the company has to start export within two years to be considered as born global. The Born global concepts stay in opposition to traditional models of internationalization. One of the most recognized is the Uppsala Model. Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul [5, p. 305-322] based on the research among Swedish companies finds that internationalization is rather gradual process. The main obstacle in rapid internationalization is lack of resources and knowledge. The second one is risk that the company has to take. In Uppsala Model the companies starts with most basic form of internationalization which do not require much capital therefore the risk is lower. The natural way to overcome mentioned problems is start foreign market entry in less demanding way. If the early stage of internationalization is successful the company gain both capital and knowledge about the market. One of the important thing mentioned by Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul is what do companies consider during choosing foreign countries to invest.

Apart from factors such as market size or geographical distance the authors put emphasis on psychic distance. It is defined as factors preventing or disturbing the flows of information between firm and market. Examples of such factors are differences in language, culture, political systems, level of education, and level of industrial development [5, p. 308].

There are several forms of internationalization. R.W. Griffin [3, p. 143] briefly mentions Export, Licensing, Strategic Alliances, Foreign Direct Investments. In most cases export will require much less capital than other form of internationalization. It also relatively easy to start such activity. In Uppsala model export is a first, the least risky, step the company can make to enter other than domestics markets. It is also a way of learning about the new customers culture and decrease the psychic distance. On the other hand, foreign direct investment such as greenfield requires a lot of time and money to be spend. It makes this form of internationalization attractive only for companies with proper capital, market knowledge and the certainty that the market is right for such entry. Forsgren and Hagstrm paraphrased this stage model in two points:

a) firms internationalize through increasing commitments to foreign markets, b) firms choose new markets sequentially according to their perceived proximity [2].

The Uppsala model describes behavior of the company very reasonably. The question is why there are some other small companies are able to internationalize so fast to call them born global? In general, the answer is that the company has to own some unique resources or operate in a good time and place. The resources can be divided into human resources and others. By human capital in this case we understand a manager with appropriate background which enables him to drive a company into international activity skipping some steps mentioned in Uppsala Model. In the case of born global we may assume that background of the decision-maker (founder) has a large influence on the internationalization path followed [7, p. 567]. It includes gained abroad experience, knowledge about work in international companies and for example education in foreign countries. Significantly high proportion of managers in the born global firms had previously worked for a company that had exported or imported goods [12, p. 214]. Such international experience reduces psychic distance between the company and foreign market. Sometimes the manager in Born Global firm is also a founder, who earlier been working in international environment and decided to run his/hers own start-up.

M. Zhang, P. Tansuhaj, J. McCullough proposed 5 points which enables firm to become Born Global:

(1)international experience (2) international marketing capability, (3) international learning, (4) innovative and risk-taking capability, (5) international networking capability [13, p. 296].

As we can see most of them can be achieved through a proper person with proper experience.

The other type of resources is usually access to special technology which enable the company to create a product, which is better or more advanced than other offered by competitors.

Concerning technological resources, especially R&D intensity and innovation rate have a positive effect on the appearance of BGFs.

Companies with high R&D expenses obviously see themselves forced to spread these on as many markets as possible, which favors rapid internationalization [4, p. 18].

Another factor which helps company with high speed internationalization is networking and using technology to communicate effectively. Proper network of contacts, suppliers and customers help companies to operate more effectively. If this high effectiveness features company from the very beginning it enables the firm to enter foreign market much faster. The mentioned network can also be brought to the company by experienced founder or a manager.

Another fact that favors faster and larger in scale foreign entries is development of communication technology and globalization. First of all, one can notice culture convergence (for example: all around the world people use iPods and iPhones. Secondly it is much easier to communicate comparing to the world 40 years ago. Internet enables small firms to compete globally because they can contact foreign customers without expensive and time-consuming travel [8, p. 301].

Most research point that such rapid internationalization as presented by Born Global company has to be fueled by combination of knowledge and resources. The world moving forward more and more requires from people international experience and open attitude towards foreign cultures. This is a reason why in my opinion we will observe more and more Born Global companies on the international markets.

Born Global companies present rapid foreign market entries. They operate in different countries as confidently as mature organizations.

The researchers seem to agree that in order to skip some traditional stages in gradual model of internationalization the company has to possess some special resources. Usually it is a person of the founder/manager whose experience or contacts are the reason why psychic distance between company and foreign market is so little at the beginning.


1. Falay Z., Salimaki M., Ainanno A., Gabrielsson M. Design-intensive born globals: a multiple case study of marketing management // JOURNAL OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT. 2007. Vol. 23. No. 9-10. P. 877-899.

2. Forsgren M., Hagstrm P. Ignorant Internationalization? The Uppsala Model and Internationalization Patterns for Internet-Related Firm // Mats., www.snee.org/filer/papers/361.pdf 3. Griffin R.W. Management, 6th edition // PWN Warszawa. P. 143.

4. Holtbrgge D., Enlinger B. Initiating Forces and Success Factors of Born Global Firms // IFSAM VIIIth World Congress, 2006.

5. Johanson J. and Wiedersheim-Paul F. The internationalization of the firm: Four Swedish cases // Journal of Management Studies. 1975. P. 305-322.

6. Laaksonen L., Karjalainen T., Ainamo A. Understanding born global cultural exports Finnish heavy metal music in the United States // http://www.iasdr2009.org/ap/Papers/ 7. Madsen T. & Servais P. The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? // International Business Review. 1997. 6(6).

8. Osarenkhoe A. An integrated framework for understanding the driving forces behind non-sequential process of internationalisation among firms // Business Process Management Journal. 2009. Volume: 15 Issue: 2. P. 301.

9. Oviatt B. and McDougall P. Toward a theory of international new ventures // Journal of International Business Studies. 1994. 25(1). P. 45-64.

10. Rasmussen Erik S. The Born Global concept || Tage Koed Madsen 28th EIBA Conference 2002, SME internationalization and born globals different European views and evidence.

11. Rennie M.W. Born Global // McKinsey Quarterly. 1993. 4. P. 45-52.

12. Wickramasekera R., Bamberry G. Exploration of Born Globals / International New Ventures: Some evidence from the Australian Wine // Industry Australasian Journal of Regional Studies. 2003. Vol. 9. 2. P. 214.

13. Zhang M., Tansuhaj P., McCullough J. International entrepreneurial capability: The measurement and a comparison between born global firms and traditional exporters in China // Published online: 2 December 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. P. 296.

Internet databases:

14. International Monetary Found database // http://www.imf.org/ http://www.doingbusiness.org



The purpose of this essay is to examine how some companies despite the fact that they were vulnerable, managed to turn crisis into opportunity while others failed and become bankrupt. We took into consideration not only the financial crisis but also other kinds of crisis.

The question is: what distinguishes those who survive and prevail in spite of the troubled and unstable times from those who either struggle to get by, or fade away [1]. In the opinion of the great number of people, doing well or not depends on you whether during the crisis you see clouds or silver lining, but is that truth?

To start with, we want to underline that according to the etymology of the word crisis in Chinese culture, the symbol for crisis is made up of two words: one meaning danger/peril and the other meaning opportunity/crucial point. As we can see, this symbol stands for the opportunity in a time of danger. Its obvious, that a mishandled opportunity turns into crisis, and a well-managed crisis turns into opportunity. Its not about the challenge itself, but how to deal with it.

In times of economic or other type of crisis, there is no doubt that every organization has to face difficult decisions. Nevertheless, some companies look for chances emerged from crisis, do not panic, stay positive and take business initiatives that gives them the opportunity to survive the recession and become even stronger and greater than before the crisis.

Whats more, the fact is that there was and there will be though times, the unstable ones, when everything goes out of control. In order to grab the chances emerged from crisis, its crucial to take into consideration and remember some rules and tips, which helped companies to overcame the crisis and attain the greatness. In literature we can find guidelines and principles that all companies, large or growing, can use to keep themselves surviving the crisis, growing strong.


One of the things that distinguish companies which survived and prevailed the crisis is building the company around the core ideology and values. That gives the company not only the strong sense of identity but also helps the company to deal with the danger, the change and instability. All in all, in order to go through difficult and challenging times company has to have its values, maintain them and preserve them constantly over the time.

P&Gs, for example, core value is a commitment to product excellence (building the reputation on quality). Even though there was the difficult time for the company and in order to face it they were about to start cutting corners or use cheaper ingredients, they didn't do that.

They zoomed out and decided to stick to their core values. That was the best solution they survived and nowadays P&G is stronger than before.

To sum up, the established set of core values has to be retained even through the tough times. It should be modified or changed only in the most extreme cases. To survive and take a chance emerged from crisis the companies have to know what really matters for them and what creates their uniqueness.


If there's a storm on the mountain, more important than the plan are the people you have with you [1]. Following this statement, the next clue worth mentioning, is that the companies which went through the crisis and depression really do put their hope in the right people the employees and the management.

If we go back in history, after World War II, all the government labs were shutting down and as a result the engineers were laying off.

Hewlett-Packard, even they also have financial problems and there were the times of slowing demand, they noticed the great opportunity to hire those engineers. As they were thinking the long term, they managed to find the resources, and as a result they were able to manage those talented engineers. After all, the effort was worth trying, because the right people don't think they have a job, they have responsibilities If you are a climber, your job is not just to belay your responsibility is that if you and your team/partner get in trouble, you don't let them down. All in all, according to Jim Collins, people who take credit in good times and blame external forces in bad times do not deserve to lead. End of story[1].

The next thing that is important is a homegrowing the management.

Although, theres a widely held belief that so as to overcome crisis the company has to hire outsiders. But on the other hand, insiders protect and maintain the core values, know and understand the company on a level that outsiders generally cannot [2].


In troubled times a business needs enduring values, the best talents and an ability to 'zoom out' and see past the chaos in front of it. The ability to get above, zoom out, and look at the problem from the different point of view is the next thing that is crucial during the times of crisis [1].

After World War II, even though Boeing lost more than 90% of its revenue, the Boeing's President Bill Allen was able to zoom out and was able to see the chance emerged from the crisis. He transferred the military technology and the know-how to building the prototype Boeing 707. He invested a large sum of money in commercial aircraft. Although everyone took him as a crazy visionary and risk-taker he believed that in long-term it would work. As a consequence, nowadays, Boeing is one of the world's leading aerospace companies and the biggest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined [1].


No two crisis are exactly alike and the most important thing for company is to understand the evolving consumption patterns.

Marketers should segment customers according to their recession psychology (from fearful to carefree) and how their categorize their purchases (from essential to expendables) [3, p. 54] by doing market research. As a result the company will be able to understand customers needs, examine them closely and find ways to meet those needs. If not, the company, for example, can reduce complexity in product portfolios and make them more affordable for customers.

But even without the market research there can be found two main groups of clients: the loyal ones who are connected emotionally to your brand and the switchers loyal neither to you nor to your competitors [3, p. 53-54]. The first group is the most important and the company has to protect them. Even in crisis companies have to give the loyal ones reasons to stay by bringing new loyalty programs. Also a good idea is to build emotional connection with brand, for example by slogan were going to get through this together [3, p. 60]. The second group is the companys opportunity and by doing the market research company has to find and close the gap between what the switchers want and what we offer them. For example one of the Starbucks gaps was that it become more like a fast-food restaurant and people want old Starbucks back the third place between the office and home [4].

What is more, there have to be shown some creativity because the companies who survived the difficult times and grow stronger are those who did not simply follow others but tended to lead the way [5].

Sometimes following the crowd is not a good idea and it is better to become innovative and create your own crises recipe. CitiBank Korea, for instance, introduced a differentiated business strategy- asset optimization-which distinguished it within leading Korean competitors and made them even stronger than before.

5. BAD COSTS REDUCING In time of crisis theres a lack of money so the companies tend to cut and reduce costs. Anyway, the most important is not to reduce all the costs the company can think about but to reduce the bad costs. Mostly, companies dramatically reduce costs in marketing area because they think that it is the best option. They may be right but it is not the only way and it could be done more gently. For example, the company may shift television spots from 30-seconds to 15-seconds or use cheaper radio advertising [3, p. 59]. Internet advertising is even for free.

Bad costs can be also found in customer service area like in Starbucks (too much seating in stores used primarily by take-out customers or too much inventory and space dedicated to accessories) but first the company has to invest in really good market research.

In addition to this, the good solution is going green and investing in renewable energy or eco-friendly construction. Companies can sort their garbage and recycle them. They can also produce and pack their products with less material and more recycled contents which conserve natural resources, cuts carbon emission and reduce shipping costs [6].

6. NEW BUSINESS During the crisis, the most people decide not to start the business. It results from overacting and thinking that there is no point in taking action as customers do not have money. But paradoxically, the crisis can be the best time to set up the business. Maybe not for all types of businesses, but if there is a gap on the market, there is a need for something, crisis with its characteristic low competition is a wonderful time for starting the business [7]. All you have to do is find a market niche and remember that you will work almost for free and you want pay yourself even a penny. In crises the major aim will be to gain new customers and earn their loyalty, then there will be time to make money.

The most important is create a business with potential.



The rock climbers who panic, die on the mountain. You don't just sit on the mountain. You either go up or go down, but don't just sit and wait to get clobbered[1]. According to that quotation from the interview with Jim Collins companies have to avoid panicking during the crisis. If they do so, they become paralyzed about decisions and are not able to discover the solutions. It is about answering the question: what can the company do not only just to survive but also to turn the crisis into a defining point in history, which can make the company grow stronger [1].


One of the big lessons we have learned is that turbulence is you friend. If you were disciplined and prepared before the storm came, you should be thankful for those times. Accordingly to that quotation an existing crisis rises challenges as well as opportunities and it is at the discretion of countries and companies to award from them. The presented essay showed that by following some rules, tips and principles crisis can be turned into opportunity.

The first connotation which is brought to mind is that the panic is your enemy. Indeed staying positive and open mined help to last during a tough times. There is no golden rule that gives an answer how to prevail the economic turmoil. However, by obeying some guidelines companies can succeed. Investing in people, be innovative, looking for the niche, following to the core values are the principles that some companies used to overcome the crisis and they achieved that. They become even greater and more prosperous than before. They used the crisis as an advantage. Thus, the answer for the question: What distinguished those who survive and those who struggle to get by or fade away has been already answered.


1. Reingold J. interview with Jim Collins, Fortune magazine // http://money.cnn.com/2009/01/15/news/companies/Jim_Collins_Crisis.

fortune/index.htm 2. Collins J. Building Companies to Last, Inc. Special Issue. The State of Small Business, 1995 // http://www.jimcollins.com/ article_topics/articles/building-companies.html 3. Quelch J.A., Jocz K.E. How to market in a downturn. Harvard Business Review. 2009. April. P. 53-60.

4. Favaro K., Romberger T., Meer D. Five rules for retailing in a recession. Harvard Business Review. 2009. April. P. 68.

5. Collins J., Porras J. Built To Last // http://www.bizsum.com/articles/ art_built-to-last.php 6. President Bill Clinton. Creating value in an economic crisis. Harvard Business Review. 2009. September. P. 71.

7. Nuttall H. How To Turn Crisis Into Opportunity // http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/how-to-turn-crisis-into-opportunity/




.. : ?


.. .............. ..

.. ARCH/GARCH- ............. . - ?


Ż............... .. -



.., .. .... ..


.. :

.. LBO





.. ........ ..


. . :

: ߻

.. ۻ



.. .




.. KPI










.. -



.., ..


.. ... ..






.. IPO



.. ,

.. ..... ..



: , ,


.. -




.. ..... .. .................. .. -



.. ,



















Marek Edyta, Miller Katarzyna, Stachowicz Katarzyna. ON THE EDGE OF PARADOXES: CHANCES EMERGED FROM THE CRISIS

2- . . . 21,0. 100 . 439. - .

. 191023, -, C ., . 21.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 ||

: III - , 11-12 2010 . 2 2010 65.5 63 .. .. : .., . .. ; .., .. ; ..,...

.. 1 2012 / , - , 1 3- - , ...

. .. . -, , . , ( , ). ...

- 1-2 2011 . 1 - . . - , (. 1-2 2011 .) / . .. : , 2011. 278 . ...

, /, 17-18 2005 ., , , 30 ...

19 2011 : (AVAC) | kay@avac.org | . +1-347-249-6375 - | bartonknotts@unaids.org | . +41-79-514-6896/ +41-22- 791-1697 (IAVI) | lwesolowski@iavi.org | . +1-212-328-7420 , , ...

XXI - IV 30 2013 . - 2014 1 000.01 60 34 XXI : - 30 2013 . 8 . IV. - . - .: -, 2014 .- 171 . ISBN 978-5-906353-65-8 ISBN 978-5-906353-69-6...

LOMONOSOV MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY Faculty of Economics Faculty of Global Studies Center for Population Studies Proceedings International Conference DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION The Seventh Valenteevskiye Chteniya dedicated to 90th anniversary of Professor Dmitry Valentey and the 45th anniversary of the Department of Population of the Lomonosov Moscow State University 1517 November 2012, Moscow, Russia with the support and participation of United Nations Population Fund...

IBR Working Paper 002/2013 ISSN 1662-162X Lucerne, November 2013 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH: INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference Autor(en) Kontakt Michael Derrer Email: michael.derrer@hslu.ch Hochschule Luzern - Wirtschaft Tel.-Nr.: +41 41 228 99 01 Institut fr Betriebs- und Regionalkonomie IBR Fax: +41 41 228 41 51 Zentralstrasse 9 6002 Luzern Zitierungsvorschlag Derrer, M. (2013). SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH: INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS -...

E Distr. GENERAL ECE/CES/2009/7 30 March 2009 RUSSIAN Original: ENGLISH , 8-10 2009 5 b) ...

() - ( ) - - : (, . , 27-28 2014 .) ! , :...

, (. ) - 12 2006 . II 2006 1:159.9:316:32:347:349.2 87+88+60.5+66+67.404+67.405 76 - , (. ) ...

AltLinux 681.3(063) 25 (. , 2526 2009 .) .. 2009 [681.3:30/49](063) 25 : ..-..,...

184 V - 1. 72 -2010 (26 - 27 2010 . ; .). - 2010 : / V - -2010 (26 - 27 2010 . ; .), (.), ...

9 2 IX , , XXI : , , 30 2010 . - 2010 378 74.58 14 : .. ( ), .. ( ), .., .. . 14 XXI :...

, (. ) : - 19 2008 . 2008 330.1:339.9:336:657:65.01:339.138:658.15:658.56:8 65.01+65.5+65.26+65.291+81 54 - , ...

- , 2007 , 24 . , ...

E Distr. GENERAL CES/2000/26/Add.5 25 July 2000 RUSSIAN Original: ENGLISH (, 13-15 2000 ) 2000/2001 2001/2002 : (, ) ...

- - 23 2013 2013 - ...

10 : 2006 - . .. - .., .. : ...

<<     |    
2014 www.konferenciya.seluk.ru - - ,

, .
, , , , 1-2 .