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NANOLAYERS FORMATION ON THE OZONE-TREATED SOLID MATRICES FOR THE

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AND OCPs IN AIR IN THE IRKUTSK REGION (RUSSIA) USING PASSIVE AIR SAMPLING

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OF DIRECT DETERMINATION OF SATURATES-WAXES-AROMATICS- RESINS-ASPHALTENS

BY TLC-FID TECHNIQUE

92. Mamedova S.Sh., Gadjieva S.R., Khanlarov T.G., Jafarova N.M.,Akhundova N.A. POLYMERIC

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6. Nauryzbaev M., Batyrbekova S., Kenessov B., etc. Investigation on the dynamics of behavior of rocket fuel components in chain soil-water-plants // Proceeding of the International Conference of Reservoir Operation and River Management (ICROM05). - Guangzhou and Three Gorges, China, 2005. - P. 74.

7. Tassibekov Kh., Batyrbekova S., Kenessov B., Lyu Ye., Nauryzbaev M. Asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as an organic pollutant of the soils of fall regions of rocket-carriers Proton separating parts // Geophysical Research Abstracts. 2005. - Vol. 7. - 11175. - SRef-ID: 1607EGU05-A-11175.

8. Batyrbekova S., Tasibekov Kh., Kenessov B., Nauryzbayev M. Character of distribution of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine concentration fields of fall places of rocket-carriers first stages // Abstracts of 5th International Conference-Exhibition on Soils, Sediments and Water Intersol2005. - Paris, France, 2005, 20 April, session 2. - Paris, France, 2005. - 13H40-14H00.

9. Lars Carlsen, Mikhail . Nauryzbaev, Olga A. Kenesova, S. Batyrbekova. A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental and human health impact of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine as a result // Chemosphere, v. 67, 2007.- p.1108-1116.

10. Lars Carlsen, Mikhail K. Nauryzbaev, Olga A. Kenesova, S. Batyrbekova. 1,1Dimethylhydrazin - Raketbraendstof og et muligt Milj0- og// Dansk Kemi, v. 88-1, 2007. - p. 30-32.

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PARTIAL ORDER RANKING IN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS.

QUALIFYING THE DPSIR APPROACH

Awareness Center, Linkpingvej 35, Trekroner, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses) framework takes into account a chain of past and present situations as well as suggests future activities as responses aiming at improving the environmental health.

Thus, DPSIR constitutes an advantageous directive for integrated environmental assessments.

The driving forces are centered on economic sectors and human activities, i.e. activities in the society that directly or indirectly are causing the pressures on the environment. The pressures on the environment develop from the human activities that are associated with the above mentioned needs (driving forces). The state refers to the environmental and human health as a result of the pressures. The impacts refer to environmental and economic factors changing the physical, chemical or biological states of the environment as well as impacts on human health. The responses comprise a priori the reactions by authorities, regulators or society in general to the changes induced through the other element in the DPSIR chain.

The paper will discusses the qualification of the DPSIR approach by applying partial order ranking to the single stages of the assessment, eventually applying the hierarchical partial ranking (HPOR) methodology in order to select the more appropriate responses.

Further the paper will describe the possible involvement of expert groups in the assessment process applying a partial order based DPSIR approach.

1. Introduction Integrated environmental assessments are often complicated as a wide variety of features and parameters must be taken into account. The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) approach constitutes a logical framework for such studies. However, within all compartments of the DPSIR framework ranking between several options appears important. Often this maybe neglected or done based on subjective evaluations. The present paper suggests a qualification of the DPSIR approach by introducing rankings based on partial order ranking within any of the single compartments, eventually leading to an overall ranking of the possibly responses taking both driving forces, pressures, states and impacts into account by applying the Hierarchical Partial Order Ranking approach (Carlsen, 2008).

2. Methodology The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses) framework (Kristensen, 2004) takes into account a chain of past and present situations as well as suggests future activities as responses aiming at improving the environmental health.

2.1.1. Driving forces The driving forces are centered on economic sectors and human activities, i.e. activities in the society that directly or indirectly are causing the pressures on the environment. Roughly speaking the driving forces can be classified as those creating the nuisance and those consuming resources.

Thus, in broad terms driving forces comprise population, economy, land use and societal development. More specific examples of driving forces comprise manufacturing and industry, energy production, transport systems, agricultural activities, fisheries, households and consumers and waste treatment, the list by no means being exhaustive. In sum driving forces can be regarded as needs for individuals, industry or society.

2.1.2. Pressures The impacts (pressures) on the environment develop from the human activities that are associated with the meeting of the above mentioned needs (driving forces). Thus, the pressures are results of production or consumption processes, such as non-sustainable use of resources, changes in land use, and direct and indirect emissions of chemicals, waste, etc to air, water and soil.

The state refers to the environmental and human health as a result of the pressures. Hence, the state comprises a combination the physical, chemical and biological quality of the various environmental compartments, i.e., soil, water and air, as well as their mutual interplay with respect to, e.g., the biodiversity, vegetation water and soil organisms within a specific ecosystem, a specific type of landscape, a given population etc.

2.1.4. Impacts The impacts refer to environmental and economic factors. Thus, the possible changes in the physical, chemical or biological states may unambiguously cause impacts on the environmental and human health, e.g., as a result of increasing concentrations of hazardous chemicals in the environment and eventually on both the economic and social performance of society.

Ultimately the impacts focus on changes in the human welfare comprising both physical and mental health as a result in changes in the quality, e.g., state, of the environment. However, also the possible changes in the environmental health due to changes in the physical, chemical and/or biological state may be covered here.

2.1.5. Responses The responses comprise a priori the reactions by authorities, regulators or society in general to the changes induced through the other element in the DPSIR scheme. Thus, responses could comprise both passive and active measures. Hence a passive measure, relating to driving forces could be initiatives, to change peoples transport pattern from private cars to public transportation by making zones where private cars are not allowed, whereas an active measure would be an increase of taxes on gasoline to motivate people to use alternative modes of transportation.

Responses related to pressures would be various regulations aiming at a reduction of the emissions of hazardous chemicals to the environment, whereas responses related to state would comprise, e.g., cleaning up or remediation projects of contaminated land.

It is noted, that basically all responses are caused by the impact element. Impacts are results of possible changes in driving forces, pressures and/ or state. Obviously, if there are no changes in these elements and thus no changes in impacts, imposing responses as the above mentioned, it cannot be argued. In Fig. 1 the complete DPSIR framework is visualized.

Figure 1 - The interrelation between the single elements in the DPSIR framework 2.2 Partial order ranking The theory of partial order ranking is presented elsewhere (Brggemann and Carlsen, 2006;

Davey and Priestley, 1990). In brief, Partial Order Ranking is a simple principle, which a priori includes as the only mathematical relation. If a system is considered, which can be described by a series of descriptors pi, a given site A, characterized by the descriptors pi(A) can be compared to another site B, characterized by the descriptors pi(B), through comparison of the single descriptors, respectively. Thus, site A will be ranked higher than site B, i.e., B A, if at least one descriptor for A is higher than the corresponding descriptor for B and no descriptor for A is lower than the corresponding descriptor for B. If, on the other hand, pi(A) > pi(B) for descriptor i and pj(A) < pj(B) for descriptor j, A and B will be denoted incomparable. Obviously, if all descriptors for A are equal to the corresponding descriptors for B, i.e., pi(B) = pi(A) for all i, the two sites will have identical rank and will be considered as equivalent, i.e., A = B. In mathematical terms this can be expressed It further follows that if A B and B C then A C. If no rank can be established between A and B these sites are denoted as incomparable, i.e., they cannot be assigned a mutual order.

Therefore POR is an ideal tool to handle incommensurable attributes.

In partial order ranking in contrast to standard multidimensional statistical analysis neither any assumptions about linearity nor any assumptions about distribution properties are made. In this way the partial order ranking can be considered as a non-parametric method.

The sets to be partially ordered, the so-called posets, are typically given in the form (X, IB), where X are the elements, xi, to be ranked by the set of descriptions, di, contained in the information database, IB (Bruggemann, 1995a). Thus the data matrix has the following form, where q s,t denotes the numerical value of descriptor ds for element xt.

The graphical representation of the partial ordering is often given in a so-called Hasse diagram (Brggemann et al. 2001; Halfon and Reggiani, 1986; Hasse, 1952; Brggemann, et al., 1995b) In practice the partial order rankings are performed using, e.g., the PyHasse software (Brggemann and Voigt, 2009).

2.2.1. Averaged ranks Comparison of elements characterized by a multitude of criteria will typically not lead to a linear order, but to a partial order. However, often a linear order is desirable or even required. For this purpose the average ranks of the single elements are advantageously used as the most probable rank for a given element thus leading to the most probably linear rank of the elements studied. The generation of the average rank of the single object in the Hasse diagram has been obtained in various theoretically based ways (Bubley and Dyer, 1999; De Loof et al., 2006; Srensen et al., 2001; Lerche et al., 2002; Lerche et al., 2003) as well as useful approximations, based on the concept of a Local partial order model, introduced by Brggemann et al. (2004) and further improved by Brggemann et al., (2005) and most recently by Brggemann and Carlsen, (2011).

In the present study average ranks for the first 4 compartment of the DPSIR approach, i.e., Dav, Pav, Sav, and Iav, are thought of as derived by any of the methods mentioned above, supposing that for each of the four compartments indicators are available, describing objects like geographical units, chemicals etc.

2.2.2. Hierarchical POR The weak linear order (in simple words: an order without incomparabilities but with equivalencies), derived as average ranks for a partial ordering can be regarded as meta-descriptors. If a series of such meta-descriptors are generated from a set of partial order rankings, like Dav, Pav, Sav, and Iav, they subsequently may constitute the basis for further ranking in a second stage, i.e., a consecutive POR denoted Hierarchical Partial Order Ranking (Carlsen, 2008) leading to an ranking of objects related to the compartment responses Rav.

3. Discussion The process for applying the DPSIR framework will initially be based on elucidating the single driving forces (Di), pressures (Pi), states (Si), impacts (Ii), and responses (Ri), respectively.

This may well be a result of a conventional brain storming process involving appropriate expert groups. Subsequently, the experts should be asked to assign values to the single, Dis, Pis, Sis and Iis, respectively, according to their importance in relation to the possible responses. Several methods for deriving these numerical are available, as, e.g., an analytical hierarchy process (Saati, 1994) or accumulation partial order ranking (APOR) as suggested by Carlsen and Brggemann (2008). These numericals |Xij| (X= D, P, S, I) denotes the js descriptor for the is response, Ri, which subsequently will be applied as descriptors for partial order ranking of the responses with respect to driving forces, pressures, states and impacts, respectively.

Thus, the following posets are studied: (Ri, |Dij|) (Ri, |Pij|), (Ri, |Sij|) and (Ri, |Iij|), respectively, eventually leading to the weak linear orders of the responses, |RavD|, |RavP|, |RavS|, and |RavI| based on the D, P, S and I, dimensions, respectively, i.e., the most appropriate responses directly to D, P, S, and I.

In order to elucidate the most appropriate overall responses simultaneously taking both driving forces, pressures, states and impacts into account a subsequent partial order ranking of the responses, Ri, using the four individual average rankings |RavD|, |RavP|, |RavS|, and |RavI| as so-called meta-descriptors (Carlsen, 2008) is performed. Letting |Ravi| denote the information database consisting of the four meta-descriptors the poset to study is (Ri, |Ravi|) the resting partial order and subsequently the average rank |Rav| will hence suggest the more appropriate responses (measures) to be taking to secure a minimum damage and hazard to the environmental and human health.

Further this approach to the DPSIR approach allows us to elucidate additional features to studying a series of available posets like (Di, |Pij|), (Pi, |Sij|), (Si, |Iij|), (Di, |Sij|), (Di, |Iij|), and (Pi, |Iij|).

Obviously, studying these posets with give us valuable information on which driving forces lead to the highest pressure, which pressure causes the most hazardous states, which state leads to the most significant impacts, which driving forces lad to the most hazardous states and most significant impacts and which pressures cause the most significant impact, respectively.

The information obtain this way may elucidate if some of the driving forces and/or the pressures call for immediate action, e.g., by recourse the precautionary principle.

4. Conclusions and Outlook The present paper has elucidated how partial order ranking techniques may constitute an advantageous decision support tool for integrated environmental assessments including giving important background whether the precautionary principle possibly should be invoked.

References

1. Brggemann, R.; Halfon, E.; Bcherl, C., 1995a. Theoretical base of the program Hasse.

GSF-Bericht 20/95, Neuherberg.

2. Bruggemann, R., Schwaiger, J. Negele, R.D., 1995b. Applying Hasse diagram technique for the evaluation of toxicological fish tests. Chemosphere 30, 1767-1780.

3. Brggemann, R.; Halfon, E.; Welzl, G.; Voigt, K.; Steinberg, C.E.W., 2001. Applying the concept of partially ordered sets on the ranking of near-shore sediments by a battery of tests. J.

Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 41, 918-925.

4. Brggemann, R., Lerche, D., Srensen, P.B. and Carlsen, L., 2004. Estimation of average ranks by a local partial order model, J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci., 44, 618-625.

5. Bruggemann, R., U. Simon, and S. Mey. 2005. Estimation of averaged ranks by extended local partial order models. MATCH - Commun.Math.Comput.Chem. 54, 489- 6. Brggemann, R., Carlsen, L., 2006. Partial Order in Environmental Sciences and Chemistry, Brggemann, R., Carlsen, L., Eds.; Springer, Berlin.

7. Bruggemann, R. and Voigt, K., 2009., Analysis of Partial Orders in Environmental Systems Applying the New Software PyHasse, in: Wittmann Jochen, Flechsig Michael, Simulation in Umwelt- und Geowissenschaften, Workshop Potsdam 2009, pp.43-55, Shaker Verlag, Aachen.

8. Brggemann, R. and Carlsen, L., 2011. An improved estimation of average ranks of partial orders, MATCH - Commun.Math.Comput.Chem, 65/2, 000-000.

9. Bubley, R. and M. Dyer, 1999. Faster random generation of linear extensions. Discr.Math.

201, 81-88.

10. Carlsen, L., 2008. Hierarchical partial order ranking, Environ.Pollut., 155, 247-253.

11. Carlsen, L. Brggemann, R., 2008. Accumulating partial order ranking, Environ.Mod.

Software, 23 (2008) 986-993.

12. Davey, B.A.; Priestley, H.A., 1990. Introduction to lattices and Order. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

13. De Loof, K., De Meyer, H., and De Baets, B., 2006. Exploiting the lattice of ideals representation of a poset. Fundamenta Informaticae, 71, 309-321.

14. Halfon, E.; Reggiani, M.G., 1986. On the ranking of chemicals for environmental hazard.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 20, 1173-1179.

15. Hasse, H. ber die Klassenzahl abelscher Zahlkrper. Akademie Verlag: Berlin, 1952.

16. Kristensen, P., 2004. The DPSIR Framework, Paper presented at the 27-29 September 2004 workshop on a comprehensive/detailed assessment of the vulnerability of water resources to environmental change in Africa using river basin approach. UNEP Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004.

17. Lerche, D., Brggemann, R., Srensen, P., Carlsen, L. and Nielsen O.J., 2002. A comparison of partial order technique with three methods of multi-criteria analysis for ranking of chemical substances, J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci., 42, 1086-1098.

18. Lerche, D., Srensen, P.B. and Brggemann, R., 2003. Improved estimation of ranking probabilities in partial orders using random linear extensions by approximation of the mutual ranking probability, J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci., 43, 1471-1480.

19. Saaty, T.L., 1994. How to make a decision; The analytical hierarchy process. Interfaces 24, 19-43.

20. Srensen, P.B., Lerche, D.B., Carlsen and L., Brggemann, R., 2001. Statistically approach for estimating the total set of linear orders. A possible way for analysing larger partial order sets In: Order Theoretical Tools in Environmental Science and Decision Systems (Brggemann, R., Pudenz, S. and Lhr, H.-P. Eds), Berichte des IGB, Leibniz-Institut of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Heft 14, Sonderheft IV, pp. 87-97.

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFLUENCE OF IONIZING RADIATION ON BONE BRAIN HAEMOPOIESIS ANIMALS

In researches on the chickens subjected to the general gamma irradiation in a dose of 6,0 Gr, by means of elektronno-microscopic metodov it is shown that intensity of destructive processes of cages of bone brain depends not how many on increase in a dose of radiation, and how many from time which has passed after an irradiation. Processes destruction accrue in direct ratio to quantity of the hours which have passed after an irradiation.

Last decades in domestic and world practice appears more and more the facts about consequences of large radiating accidents: failures on atomic power stations, nuclear tests, leaks of radioactive fuel. This problem gets a special urgency because in the territories polluted radioactive nuclide, live the big contingents of people, agricultural animals and a bird (Topurija G.M., 2003) are grown up.

The Orenburg region is included into number of territories of Russia, on a surface and which bowels the centres of artificial radioactive pollution are created. Besides air land explosion of a nuclear bomb on army doctrines in Totsky area in 1954 (a unique case in world practice of army doctrines), in its limits with 1970 for 1973 it is blown up underground five nuclear charges. In three cases they are made for the purpose of a construction of capacities for storage of a gas condensate and gas. Underground gas storehouses are built in thickness of stone salt on depth of 1141 m, maintained within fifteen years then they have been preserved because of filling of capacities with a radioactive brine. Measures were taken for preservation of working volume of capacities and prevention of capture of radioactive substances by storage products on removal of brines from capacities. Operations were spent without due accuracy and have led to radiating failure on all objects (Zhukov A.P., 1999).

As it is known, the blood system is one of the most radio sensitive, so-called ritical systems. In some cases changes in blood arise at action on an organism of rather small doses of radiation and can be unique diagnostic indicators of beam diseases and their consequences.

Meanwhile, available experimental hematology materials are received basically on laboratory animals. However dose and time parametres of defeat and restoration of blood cells cannot be identical to all animals, including for a bird as the analysis dose dependences of marrowy destruction has revealed considerable specific distinctions (Semenova E.G., 1997; Starix O.N., 2002; Safonova V. A, Starix O.N., 2002).

The urgency of the designated problems has caused a choice of a direction of our researches in which we have made an attempt to explain laws of change in system at birds under the influence of an ionising radiation.

As object of research chickens-broilers of daily age served. The general unitary gamma irradiation carried out on telescale-therapeutic to installation Agate -1 at capacity of a dose of 0,6 Gr/minutes, in a uniform field in the size 0,2 0,2 m, distance from a source to a surface 0, m. In experience irradiated a bird with a dose of 6,0 Gr. Sampling carried out in 1, 3, 6, 12 and hours. For ultrathin research a marrow fixed in 2,5 %-th solution glutaraldehyde on the phosphatic buffer with the subsequent hour dofixation 1 %-th solution OsO4 on the same buffer. After processing by the sated solution of uranil-acetate on 70 % th ethanol a material dehydrated in spirits of an ascending fortress and concluded in epon. Ultrathin cuts studied in an electronic microscope.

At an irradiation of a bird a dose of 6,0 Gr, in 1 hour and in 3 hours morphological changes of cages of a marrow in expressiveness degree widely varied. In some haemopoetic cages were observed both damage signs, and indemnifications directed on restoration intracelylaris of elements and maintenance of integrity of all cage. In such cages of damage were not so considerable. So the most widespread signs of damage of cages were swelling mitochondrion and partial disorganisation in them growthis, expansion perinuclearis spaces. Indemnification reactions were characterised by increase of activity of a cellular kernel, strengthening of intranuclear synthesis of fiber, increase in the area of a surface of nuclear membranes and plasmalemmas cages.

The first type meeting stromalis reticular cages actively functioning phagocytic cages were with light kernels and with a considerable quantity large phagolisosom in the cytoplasm, the second type - with atrophy signs a little compressed extended cages with very dense dark cytoplasm and a narrow long kernel.

Young cages - predecessors (blast cages) a marrow of chickens have been presented as large cages, from 20 to 30 microns in diameter, and the smaller size, from 8-10 till a micron.

Keeping the structure seldom meeting in sight of the cage were roundish or slightly oval form, with a large roundish or oval kernel more often. Cytoplasm extensive, containing small light bubbles, small vials, vesicle, a small amount small mitochondrias and short expanded almost roundish tanks GER, set of free ribosomes and polyribosomes, sometimes individual small complexes of Goldzhi. Despite safety of the majority endocellular organellas, in a kernel changes in a kind of disappearance peripheral heterochromatin and easings of density and dispersion of kernels often came to light, and in cytoplasm of such cages signs of reduction of quantity of ribosomes and polyribosomes already came to light. That is it were available all signs of decrease in albuminous synthesis. At many blastes cages in different degree of expressiveness extended perinuclear spaces, beginning from weak degree to the strong. At separate cages at a full enlightenment karyoplasm it is strong emergence vacuoles in cytoplasm. Signs apoptosis blastic cages in the form of specific dense figures were defined also.

As to cages monocytes of some a marrow of chickens at an irradiation in a dose of 6,0 Gr in and 3 hours in promonocytes endocellular destructive processes were different degree of expressiveness, from poorly shown to average degree, and kernels very expressed in the form of a full enlightenment and cytoplasm because of destruction chromatin in a kernel and organell in cytoplasm. In cages disappeared growth in mitochondrion, emergence vacuoles channels GER and tanks of a lamellar complex of Goldzhi, the quantity of ribosomes and the policy in cytoplasm considerably decreased. Came to light also mature monocyte with more dark cytoplasm and a kernel, and accordingly monocyte with optical light cytoplasm and a kernel. Geterochromatin in kernels of these cages remained partially.

In cytoplasm dark monocyte channels GER, emergence vacuoles in mitochondrias have been a little expanded, but there were many ribosomes and polyribosomes, came to light small lisosomes, the lamellar complex of Goldzhi has been well expressed. Optically light monocyte, possibly, represented population of the cages less steady against radiation, to them the endocellular elements participating in synthesis of fiber, such as ribosomes, GER, a kernel were exposed to partial destruction, poorly extended perenuclear space, emergence vacuoles in mitochondrias.

Separate promonocyte kept the structure. A body of cages more often the oval form, with large oval a kernel with not-considerable quantity peripheral heterochromatin and one-two kernels.

Cytoplasm is extensive, contains sometimes, except small mitochondrial, lamellar KG with adjacent centrioles, roundish tanks GER, set of free ribosomes and polyribosomes. In separate cages the nuclear material collapsed everything, in cytoplasm the dystrophic phenomena in a kind emergence vacuoles, full destruction organellis and occurrences in cytoplasm of residual little bodies were shown.

Mielocyte and metomielocyte to differentiate on specific granules it was not represented possible as in all meeting cages of the given number these granules were exposed expressed destraction. Granules as though lysing or were dissolved. Cytoplasm of cages emergence vacuoles owing to destruction kristes in mitochondrias and their swelling, and also strong expansion of tanks GER. Chromatin and kernels in a kernel dissipated. Sharing mielocytes it was not found out.

Sometimes met mielocyte, having except the changes set forth above the expressed fragmentation of the condensed parts of cytoplasm and constriction a nuclear material along with formation of the endocellular emptiness. From the mature differentiated cages of a described cellular number met basophilic granulocytes. They had horseshoe-shaped a kernel consisting of two segments, rich heterochromatinas. Cytoplasm is filled by small KG, small mitochondrial, short flat tanks GER, varying number of free ribosomes, numerous particles glycogenen and certain number lisosomes.

At cytoplasm there were big, specific granules limited to a single-layered membrane, about 1, microns in diameter, varying under the form, the sizes. The surface of cages sometimes formed cytoplasmatic growthis.

Megakariocyte on preparations were not found out. From cages lymphopoaesis occasionally met remained lymphoblastis in the form of large mononucleus cages, to 25 microns in diameter, a having big roundish or oval kernel numerous grains heterochromatin on periphery and 1 - expressed kernels. Cytoplasm contained a little spherical mitochondrion, poorly developed KG, some short tanks GER and considerable quantity RNA in the form of congestions of free ribosomes and polyribosomes. Lymphocyte it is frequent almost at full safety of a kernel had cytoplasm with the expressed dystrophic changes in a kind destraction endocellular organellas, enlightenments and cytoplasm expansions. Met also lymphocytes signs apoptosis in the form of the expressed condensation chromatin and fragmentations of a kernel, strong consolidation of cytoplasm (fig. 1).

Drawing 1 Signs apoptosis lymphocyte in a marrow of a chicken in 3 hours after an irradiation in a dose of 6,0 Gr. Electron-diffraction pattern. Has withdrawn. Simultaneously in such cages signs destraction mitochondrionis, tanks GER, others organellas were found out also. Nearby there were plasmatic cages with developed channels GER and corpulent cages with typical granules at cytoplasm. Occasionally met macrophagis signs of easing of functional activity in the form of accumulation in cytoplasm of large not digested residual little bodies.



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