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A HYDROMETALLURGICAL APROACH TO EXTRACT VALUABLE

METALS FROM WASTE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS I. Birloaga, B. Kopacek, F. Vegli,

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A HYDROMETALLURGICAL APROACH TO EXTRACT

VALUABLE METALS FROM WASTE PRINTED CIRCUIT

BOARDS

Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, University of L'Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, A- Introduction The wastes coming from electrical and electronic equipments (EEE) have knowing an alarming growing in the last decade. This is due to the rapid economical growth coupled with the new technological innovations which continue to accelerate the replacement of electronic devices (Duan et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2012). As the most of these wastes employ in their structure printed circuit boards (PCBs), the increased amount of WEEE had conducted to large quantities of waste PCBs that need to be disposed / treated. From composition of waste printed circuit boards valuable, the base metals (Cu, Zn, Al, Sn, Fe, Ni) and precious metals (Au, Ag, Pd) cumulate approximately %, and the rest is constituted by PVC plastics and brominates flame retardants (BFR) (Goosey and Kellner, 2003). Due to the very complex structure and composition of the WPCBs, sundried of physicomechanical, pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and byometallurgical processes or a combination of thereof, were attempted by various researchers (Das et al., 2009; David, 2007; Ha et al., 2010;

Hagelken et al., 2005; Jha et al., 2012; Jianfeng et al., 2009; Kogan, 2006; Shuey et al., 2006). Between all this the hydrometallurgical processing with a mechanical process as a pretreatment represent the most conveyable chose as they present more flexibility during the upscaling and control processes(Yang et al., 2012).

In the first step of a hydrometallurgical approach, namely the chemical leaching, sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids were the most used chemicals for a selectively leaching of the base metals by those precious. For these latest, the cyanide technology was gradually replaced by more less poisonous methods, namely the thiohydrometallurgical processes. The thiohydrometallurgical processes consist in the use of the one of the following three leaching agents: thiosulfate, thiocyanate and thiourea (Rong et al., 2005). For metals extraction from solution various methods like precipitation, cementation, electrowining, solvent extraction, adsorption on activated carbon, ion exchanges, and not only could be performed.

In the present hydrometallurgical approach are summarized the results obtained on the waste printed circuit boards processing at laboratory scale. For the leaching of base metals, in particular copper, the system consisting in sulfuric acid as reagent and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen source was considered as the most suitable. This is due to its less toxic nature and to possibility of its use even at industrial level. On the solid residue of the oxidative leaching process, the thioureation process in acid medium with triferric ion as oxidant was applied to extract gold and silver. The main advantage in the use of thiourea presents the advantage of a very fast kinetics of this reagent with gold. The cementation with zinc metal powder was used for both copper and precious metals recovery from their solution Results and discussions After removing of the toxic components, the waste printed circuit boards have been shredded to pieces of 3 to 4 cm and then grounded in two steps with a cutting mill of 10 and respectively 3mm mesh size. The elements distribution at various particles sizes was performed and it was observed that most of the metallic elements were retained in the coarser fraction(Birloaga et al., 2010) The thiourea leaching tests performed directly on the waste printed circuit boards with a particle size of 0 . N= N (iX, j), = (iX, j) N (X, ), (X, ) (7) .

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